American Indian Expo - Anadarko, Oklahoma.  : Native Son : Oklahoma City Editorial and Documentary Photographer
American Indian Expo - Anadarko, Oklahoma.
Fort Sill, Oklahoma, Apache Fire Dancers march in the American Indian Expo parade.  : Native Son : Oklahoma City Editorial and Documentary Photographer
Fort Sill, Oklahoma, Apache Fire Dancers march in the American Indian Expo parade.
Two Fort Sill Apache youths, one blind, the other crippled, were left in a mountain cave after their tribe was attacked. After several days, fearing death,  a voice told them to build a fire and then jump over it. The voice said they would be healed and saved. The Fire Dance became  the dance of the mountain spirit.  : Native Son : Oklahoma City Editorial and Documentary Photographer
Two Fort Sill Apache youths, one blind, the other crippled, were left in a mountain cave after their tribe was attacked. After several days, fearing death, a voice told them to build a fire and then jump over it. The voice said they would be healed and saved. The Fire Dance became the dance of the mountain spirit.
A White Mountain, New Mexico, Apache Crown Dancer dances the scared dance tradition. Mountain Spirits taught the Apaches the dance as a means of healing.  : Native Son : Oklahoma City Editorial and Documentary Photographer
A White Mountain, New Mexico, Apache Crown Dancer dances the scared dance tradition. Mountain Spirits taught the Apaches the dance as a means of healing.
Seminole Pow wow - Fort Lauderdale, Florida : Native Son : Oklahoma City Editorial and Documentary Photographer
Seminole Pow wow - Fort Lauderdale, Florida
A member of the Cheyenne Arapaho tribe observes a moment of silence during the Massacre Memorial Ceremony to honor Indian killed by General Custer, as he made his way to the Little Big Horn battle.  : Native Son : Oklahoma City Editorial and Documentary Photographer
A member of the Cheyenne Arapaho tribe observes a moment of silence during the Massacre Memorial Ceremony to honor Indian killed by General Custer, as he made his way to the Little Big Horn battle.
Cheyenne Arapaho reburial ceremony -Concho, Oklahoma. : Native Son : Oklahoma City Editorial and Documentary Photographer
Cheyenne Arapaho reburial ceremony -Concho, Oklahoma.
Cheyenne Arapaho reburial ceremony : Native Son : Oklahoma City Editorial and Documentary Photographer
Cheyenne Arapaho reburial ceremony
Members of the Kiowa's tribe Black Leggings society at the annual Veterans Days ceremony. : Native Son : Oklahoma City Editorial and Documentary Photographer
Members of the Kiowa's tribe Black Leggings society at the annual Veterans Days ceremony.
During a battle, Kiowa warriors often set fires around their enemies. Their legs turned black as they walked through the smoke.  : Native Son : Oklahoma City Editorial and Documentary Photographer
During a battle, Kiowa warriors often set fires around their enemies. Their legs turned black as they walked through the smoke.
A list of the war dead is seen on the side of a tipi during the Veterans' Day ceremony.  : Native Son : Oklahoma City Editorial and Documentary Photographer
A list of the war dead is seen on the side of a tipi during the Veterans' Day ceremony.
Geronimo's grave at Fort Sill, Oklahoma. : Native Son : Oklahoma City Editorial and Documentary Photographer
Geronimo's grave at Fort Sill, Oklahoma.
Apache prisoner-of-war graves at Fort Sill, Oklahoma. : Native Son : Oklahoma City Editorial and Documentary Photographer
Apache prisoner-of-war graves at Fort Sill, Oklahoma.
Miccosukee alligator wrestler - Florida Everglades.  : Native Son : Oklahoma City Editorial and Documentary Photographer
Miccosukee alligator wrestler - Florida Everglades.
Buffalo roundup - Wichita Mountains, Oklahoma. : Native Son : Oklahoma City Editorial and Documentary Photographer
Buffalo roundup - Wichita Mountains, Oklahoma.
The White Mountain Apache coming-of-age Sunrise Dance is filled with meaning and spirit for a young Apache girl, as she is danced into womanhood.  : Native Son : Oklahoma City Editorial and Documentary Photographer
The White Mountain Apache coming-of-age Sunrise Dance is filled with meaning and spirit for a young Apache girl, as she is danced into womanhood.
The Sunrise dance can last four days filled with dancing and the young woman running into the four directions (symbolizing the four stages of life). : Native Son : Oklahoma City Editorial and Documentary Photographer
The Sunrise dance can last four days filled with dancing and the young woman running into the four directions (symbolizing the four stages of life).
The dance was outlawed by the Federal Government for 70 years - like many traditional ceremonies. : Native Son : Oklahoma City Editorial and Documentary Photographer
The dance was outlawed by the Federal Government for 70 years - like many traditional ceremonies.
The Sunrise ceremony re-enacts the legend of the White Painted Woman who survived the great flood and gave birth to two sons. Her sons kill the Owl Man who had terrorized her tribe. At the return of the sons, the While Painted Woman established a puberty rite to be given to all daughters born to the people. : Native Son : Oklahoma City Editorial and Documentary Photographer
The Sunrise ceremony re-enacts the legend of the White Painted Woman who survived the great flood and gave birth to two sons. Her sons kill the Owl Man who had terrorized her tribe. At the return of the sons, the While Painted Woman established a puberty rite to be given to all daughters born to the people.
Once the ceremonies begin, the girl is guided by the medicine man and her sponsor - a godmother who is spiritually strong.  : Native Son : Oklahoma City Editorial and Documentary Photographer
Once the ceremonies begin, the girl is guided by the medicine man and her sponsor - a godmother who is spiritually strong.
The girl is massaged into womanhood by her sponsor to "mold her" into Changing woman or White Painted Woman. : Native Son : Oklahoma City Editorial and Documentary Photographer
The girl is massaged into womanhood by her sponsor to "mold her" into Changing woman or White Painted Woman.
The girl is covered with a mixture of clay and corn meal that cannot be washed off during the ceremony. This is test of mental strength.  : Native Son : Oklahoma City Editorial and Documentary Photographer
The girl is covered with a mixture of clay and corn meal that cannot be washed off during the ceremony. This is test of mental strength.
During the last day of the ceremony, she blesses her people with pollen as well getting in touch with her healing powers.  : Native Son : Oklahoma City Editorial and Documentary Photographer
During the last day of the ceremony, she blesses her people with pollen as well getting in touch with her healing powers.
The Pima Reservation, south of Phoenix, has one of the highest rates of diabetes in the world. Nearly half the adults have diabetes.  : Native Son : Oklahoma City Editorial and Documentary Photographer
The Pima Reservation, south of Phoenix, has one of the highest rates of diabetes in the world. Nearly half the adults have diabetes.
The Pimas represent the extreme of an epidemic sweeping Indian communities. About 9% of American Indians have diabetes - three times higher the rate for white people.  : Native Son : Oklahoma City Editorial and Documentary Photographer
The Pimas represent the extreme of an epidemic sweeping Indian communities. About 9% of American Indians have diabetes - three times higher the rate for white people.
It is not uncommon to find diabetes in three year old children.  : Native Son : Oklahoma City Editorial and Documentary Photographer
It is not uncommon to find diabetes in three year old children.
In the past Indians were poked and prodded in pursuit of a cause.  : Native Son : Oklahoma City Editorial and Documentary Photographer
In the past Indians were poked and prodded in pursuit of a cause.
In recent years the focus began to shift from treating the sick and burying the dead to trying to prevent diabetes.  : Native Son : Oklahoma City Editorial and Documentary Photographer
In recent years the focus began to shift from treating the sick and burying the dead to trying to prevent diabetes.
Educators are teaching the basics of healthy living - if they are healthy and eat right, they live longer.  : Native Son : Oklahoma City Editorial and Documentary Photographer
Educators are teaching the basics of healthy living - if they are healthy and eat right, they live longer.
"Imagine if your mom had diabetes, your dad had diabetes, your grandparents had diabetes". : Native Son : Oklahoma City Editorial and Documentary Photographer
"Imagine if your mom had diabetes, your dad had diabetes, your grandparents had diabetes".
Researchers report that people became heavier. Their bodies adapted to store fat. And they became fat.  : Native Son : Oklahoma City Editorial and Documentary Photographer
Researchers report that people became heavier. Their bodies adapted to store fat. And they became fat.
Another factor is the shift in diet that occurred after World War II with the onset of government commodity programs and fast foods. Traditional foods such as home grown squash and corn were replaced with fried and processed foods high in sugar and fat.  : Native Son : Oklahoma City Editorial and Documentary Photographer
Another factor is the shift in diet that occurred after World War II with the onset of government commodity programs and fast foods. Traditional foods such as home grown squash and corn were replaced with fried and processed foods high in sugar and fat.
By the mid  1980s, researchers suspected diet and exercise could help to prevent diabetes. . : Native Son : Oklahoma City Editorial and Documentary Photographer
By the mid 1980s, researchers suspected diet and exercise could help to prevent diabetes. .
For the first time, there was evidence that changing lifestyle is an effective means of prevention. To some diabetes is a bigger problem than cigarettes, killing more people.  : Native Son : Oklahoma City Editorial and Documentary Photographer
For the first time, there was evidence that changing lifestyle is an effective means of prevention. To some diabetes is a bigger problem than cigarettes, killing more people.
 : Native Son : Oklahoma City Editorial and Documentary Photographer